Dr. Tony Gamble

Dr. Tony Gamble
Dr. Tony GambleMarquette University

Wehr Life Sciences, 411

MilwaukeeWI53201United States of America
(414) 288-1476Lab Website

Associate Professor

Evolutionary Biology


B.A. 2001, Metropolitan State University, St. Paul, MN
Ph.D., 2008, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
Post-doctoral Fellow 2008-2014, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Research Interests

Evolutionary Biology

Research in the Gamble lab investigates the developmental and evolutionary processes that generate biological diversity. In particular we focus on three complementary topics: 1) the evolution of sex chromosomes and sex determining mechanisms – using genomic and molecular tools; 2) the evolution of novel morphologies related to locomotion – using genomic and developmental approaches; and 3) the spatial and historical aspects of species diversification – using tools from phylogenetics and biogeography. Studying these processes in a single model clade (lizards and snake) presents an unparalleled opportunity to understand the complex origins of biological diversity.


Griffing, A. H., T. J. Sanger, L. Arnaoudoff, A. M. Bauer, A. Cobos, T. E. Higham, E. Naylor, and T. Gamble (2021). And thereby hangs a tail: Morphology, developmental patterns, and performance of the adhesive tail tips of crested geckos (Diplodactylidae: Correlophus ciliatus). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 288:20210650.

Keating, S., A. H. Griffing, S. V. Nielsen, D. P. Scantlebury, and T. Gamble (2020). Conserved ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Caribbean croaking geckos (Aristelliger: Sphaerodactylidae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 33:1316–1326.

Griffing, A. H., T. Gamble, and A. M. Bauer (2020). Distinct patterns of pigment development underlie convergent hyperpigmentation between nocturnal and diurnal geckos (Squamata: Gekkota). BMC Evolutionary Biology 20:40.

Griffing, A. H., T. J. Sanger, J. D. Daza, S. V. Nielsen, B. J. Pinto, E. L. Stanley, and T. Gamble (2019). Embryonic development of a parthenogenetic vertebrate, the mourning gecko (Lepidodactylus lugubris). Developmental Dynamics 248:1070–1090.

Pinto, B. J., S. V. Nielsen, and T. Gamble (2019). Transcriptomic data support a nocturnal bottleneck in the ancestor of gecko lizards. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 141: 106639.

Russell, A. P. and T. Gamble (2019). Evolution of the gekkotan adhesive system: Does digit anatomy point to one or more origins? Integrative and Comparative Biology 59:131–147.

Nielsen, S. V., J. D. Daza, B. J. Pinto, and T. Gamble (2019). ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the endemic Puerto Rican leaf-toed gecko (Phyllodactylus wirshingi). Cytogenetic and Genome Research 157:89–97.

Pinto, B. J., J. Titus-McQuillan, J. D. Daza, and T. Gamble (2019). Persistence of a geographically-stable hybrid zone in Puerto Rican dwarf geckos (Sphaerodactylus). Journal of Heredity 110:523–534.

Daza, J. D., B. J. Pinto, R. Thomas, A. Herrera-Martinez, D. P. Scantlebury, L. F. Padilla García, R. P. Balaraman, G. Perry, and T. Gamble (2019). The sprightly little sphaerodactyl: Systematics and biogeography of the Puerto Rican dwarf geckos Sphaerodactylus (Sphaerodactylidae, Gekkota). Zootaxa 4712:151–201.

Pinto, B. J., G. R. Colli, T. E. Higham, A. P. Russell, D. P. Scantlebury, L. J. Vitt, and T. Gamble (2019). Population genetic structure and species delimitation of a widespread, Neotropical dwarf gecko, Gonatodes humeralis (Sphaerodactylidae: Gekkota). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 133:54–66.

Nielsen, S. V, J. L. Banks, R. E. Diaz Jr., P. A. Trainor, and T. Gamble (2018). Dynamic sex chromosomes in Old World chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 31:484–490.

Gamble, T., T. A. Castoe, S. V. Nielsen, J. L. Banks, D. C. Card, D. R. Schield, G. W. Schuett, and W. Booth (2017). The discovery of XY sex chromosomes in a Boa and Python. Current Biology 27:2148–2153.

Gamble, T. (2016). Using RAD-seq to recognize sex-specific markers and sex chromosome systems. Molecular Ecology 25:2114–2116.

Gamble, T., J. Coryell, T. Ezaz, J. Lynch, D. Scantlebury, and D. Zarkower (2015). Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) reveals an extraordinary number of transitions among gecko sex-determining mechanisms. Molecular Biology and Evolution 32:1296–1309.

Gamble, T., E. Greenbaum, T. R. Jackman, and A. M. Bauer (2015). Into the light: Diurnality has evolved multiple times in geckos. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 115:896–910.

Gamble, T., and D. Zarkower (2014). Identification of sex-specific molecular markers using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). Molecular Ecology Resources 14: 902–913.

Gamble, T., A. J. Geneva, R. E. Glor, and D. Zarkower (2014). Anolis sex chromosomes are derived from a single ancestral pair. Evolution 68:1027–1041.

Gamble, T., E. Greenbaum, T. R. Jackman, A. P. Russell, and A. M. Bauer (2012). Repeated origin and loss of adhesive toepads in geckos. PLoS ONE 7:e39429.

Gamble, T. and D. Zarkower (2012). Sex Determination [Primer]. Current Biology 22: R257–R262.

Gamble, T., A. M. Bauer, G. R. Colli, E. Greenbaum, T.R. Jackman, L. J. Vitt, and A. M. Simons (2011). Coming to America: Multiple origins of New World geckos. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24: 231–244.

Gamble, T., J. D. Daza, G. R. Colli, L. J. Vitt, and A. M. Bauer (2011). A new genus of miniaturized and pug-nosed gecko from South America (Sphaerodactylidae: Gekkota). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 1244–1266.


Kathryn Sullivan (Ph.D. student)
Ashmika Behere (Ph.D. student)
Ryan Cook (Ph.D. student)

Former Students

Shannon Keating, 2022, Ph.D.
Aaron Griffing, 2022, Ph.D.
Brendan J. Pinto, 2020, Ph.D.

Faculty Directory

Faculty Directory

Staff Directory

Emeriti & Former Faculty


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Department of Biological Sciences

Wehr Life Sciences, 109
1428 W. Clybourn St.
Milwaukee, WI 53233

(414) 288-7355

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