In Science & Religion: From Conflict to Conversation (Paulist Press 1995), Georgetown University Professor John F. Haught asks: Was the universe created? Does evolution rule out God's existence? Is human morality reducible to chemistry? Is Earth our "home"? Does the universe have a purpose? Does science rule out God as personal?
     Students in Theology 170 at Marquette University strive to answer these questions according to Haught's informative and cleverly-presented ways of relating theology and the natural sciences -- conflict (a mutually-exclusive approach taken by both biblical literalists and scientific materialists), contrast (a way of keeping theological reflection and scientific pursuit totally separate from one another), contact (a model through which the disciplines can be informed by each other to enable a more cohesive and intellectually satisfying view of issues that converge at their boundaries), and confirmation (the theological encouragement of the quest for scientific knowledge).

     To supplement Haught's presentations, we seek insight on specific topics in Zygon, a premier scholarly journal dedicated to interfacing religion and science.  Zygon articles demonstrate Haught's contact model by providing in-depth dialogue on issues that transcend the limitations of each discipline.

     Following are articles from the 1980-99 issues of Zygon that were identified by Honors Program students Nora Ellen Flaherty in Fall 1997 and Joseph Ziegler in Fall 1999.  In Fall 2006, Dr. Christopher Yeung, a research engineer, doctoral student in Religious Studies, and my research assistant, updated this project from articles appearing in Zygon issues published from 2000 to 2006.  These articles show how theologians and natural scientists can be informed about each others' perspectives sothey are able to speak more coherently about God, the more-than-human world, and the human place within it.  Future Honors Program students will be offered opportunities to add articles that appeared prior to 1980 and to update the bibliography as additional issues of Zygon are published.

Does science rule out a personal God?
Bielfeldt, Dennis.  "Can Western Monotheism Avoid Substance Dualism?"  Zygon 36 (March 2001): 153-177.

D'Aquili, Eugene G., and Newberg, Andrew B.  "The Neuropsychological Basis of Religions, or Why God Won't Go Away."  Zygon 33 (June 1998): 187-202.

Drees, Willem B.  "God and Contemporary Science: Philip Clayton's Defense of Panentheism."  Zygon 34 (September 1999): 515-36.

Eccles, John C.  "Science and Providence: God's Interaction with the World."  Zygon 25 (December 1990): 504-8.

Foerst, Anne.  "Cog a Humanoid Robot, and the Question of the Image of God."  Zygon 33 (March 1998): 91-112.

Gerhart, Mary, and Russell, Allan Melvin.  "Cog is to Us as We are to God: A Response to Anne Foerst."  Zygon 33 (June 1998): 263-70.

Grenz, Stanley J.  "'Scientific' Theology/'Theological' Science: Pannenberg and the Dialog Between Theology and Science."  Zygon 34 (March 1999): 159-66.

Griffin, David Ray.  "A Richer or a Poorer Naturalism? A Critique of Willem Drees's 'Religion, Science and Naturalism.'"  Zygon 32 (December 1997): 593-614.

MacKay, Donald M.  "Machines, Brains, and Persons."  Zygon 20 (December 1985): 401-12.

Murphy, George L.  "The Theology of the Cross and God's Work in the World."  Zygon 33 (June 1998): 221-32.

Nancarrow, Paul S.  "Wisdom's Information: Rereading a Biblical Image in the Light of Some Contemporary Science and Speculation."  Zygon 32 (March 1997): 51-64.

Nelson, James S.  "Divine Action: Is it credible?"  Zygon 30 (June 1995): 267-81.

Peterson, Gregory R.  "God, Determinism, and Action: Perspectives from Physics." Zygon 35 (December 2000): 881-890.

Peterson, Gregory R.  "Minds and Bodies: Human and  Divine."  Zygon 32 (June 1997): 189-206.

Polkinghorne, John.  "Wolfhart Pannenberg's Engagement with the Natural Sciences."  Zygon 34 (March 1999): 151-58.

_______. "Does science clarify God's relation to the world?"  Zygon 26 (December 1991): 519-26.

Rolston, Holmes, III.  "God of Chance."  Zygon 24 (March 1989): 109-16.

Ruse, Michael.  "Robert Boyle and the Machine Metaphor."  Zygon 37 (September 2002): 581-596.

Schmitz-Moormann, Karl.  "Meeting God Through Science: Hidden Realism."  Zygon 27 (December 1992): 470-76.

Schoen, Edward L.  "Between Addition and Difference: A Place for Religious Understanding in a World of Science."  Zygon 33 (December 1998): 599-616.

Schwarz, Hans.  "God's Place in a Space Age."  Zygon 21 (September 1986): 353-68.

Does evolution eliminate the plausibility of God?
Arnhart, Larry. "The Truth, Goodness, and Beauty of Darwinism. "Zygon 36 (March 2001): 77-92.

Bradie, Michael.  "What does evolutionary biology tell us about philosophy and religion?"  Zygon 29  (March 1994): 45-54.

Browning, Don.  "Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior."  Zygon 24  (September 1989): 379-83.

Brun, Rudolf B.  "Integrating Evolution: A Contribution to the Christian Doctrine of Evolution."  Zygon 29 (September 1994): 275-97.

Burhoe, Ralph Wendell.  "War, Peace, and Religion's Biocultural Evolution."  Zygon 21 (December 1986): 439-72.

Cruz, Eduardo R.  "Evolution as Religion: Strange Hopes and Stranger Fears."  Zygon 24 (June 1989): 275-79.

D'Aquili, Eugene G.  "The Human Factor: Evolution, Culture, and Religion."  Zygon 29 (September 1994): 371-88.

Dayton, Donald W.  "Creationism in Twentieth-Century America."  Zygon 32 (March 1997): 105-14.

Fry, Iris.  "Evolution in Thermodynamic Perspective: A Historical and Philosophical Angle."  Zygon 30 (June 1995): 227-49.

Galleni, Lodovico.  "How does the Teilhardian vision of evolution compare with contemporary theories?"  Zygon 30 (March 1995): 25-46.

Gerhart, Mary.  "The Human Factor: Evolution, Culture, and Religion."  Zygon 29 (September 1994): 383-89.

Gilkey, Langdon.  "Evolution, Culture and Sin: Responding to Philip Hefner's Proposal."  Zygon 30 (June 1995): 293-309.

Gnuse, Robert.  "Contemporary Evolutionary Theory as a New Heuristic Model for the Socioscientific Method in Biblical Studies."   Zygon 25 (December 1990): 405-32.

Goodman, Lenn E., and Goodman, Madeleine J.  "Creation and Evolution: Another Round in an Ancient Struggle."  Zygon 18 (March 1983): 3-44.

Grigg, Richard.  "Religion, Science, and Evolution: Paul Tillich's Fourth Way." Zygon 38 (December 2003): 943-954.

Hefner, Philip.  "Entrusting the Life that has Evolved: A Response to Michael Ruse's Ruse."  Zygon 29 (March 1994): 67-74.

Hull, David L.  "But is it Science? The Philosophical Question in the Creation/Evolution Controversy."  Zygon 25 (December 1990): 497-505.

Kurland, Jeffrey A.  "Toward an Evolution of Mind: Implications for the Faithful?"  Zygon 34 (March 1999): 67-92.

________.  "The Darwinian Paradigm: Essays on Its History, Philosophy and Religious Implications."  Zygon 25 (December 1990): 497-505.

MacCormack, Earl R.  "Religious Metaphors: Mediators Between Biological and Cultural Evolution that Generate Transcendent Meaning."  Zygon 18 (March 1983): 45-66.

MacLean, Paul D.  "Darwin on Trial."  Zygon 27 (December 1992) : 466-70.

McMullin, Ernan.  "Evolution and Special Creation."  Zygon 28 (September 1993): 299-336.

Peters, Karl E.  "Religion and an Evolutionary Theory of Knowledge."  Zygon 17 (December 1982): 385-415.

Peterson, Gregory R.  "Whose Evolution? Which Theology?"  Zygon 35 (June 2000): 221-232.

Peterson, Gregory R.  "The Intelligent-Design Movement: Science or Ideology?"   Zygon 37 (March 2002): 7-23.

Ruse, Michael.  "From Belief to Unbelief -- and Halfway Back."  Zygon 29 (March 1994): 25-36.

Smook, Roger.  "The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design."  Zygon 24 (September 1989): 377-80.

Stone Jr., William S.  "A Summary of Michael Ruse's Darwin and Design."  Zygon 37 (June 2002): 443-446.

Strohman, Richard C.  "The Origins of Order: Self Organization and Selection in Evolution."  Zygon 30 (June 1995): 329-32.

Thiessen, Gerd.  "The Human Factor: Evolution, Culture, and Religion."  Zygon 29 (September 1994): 389-400.

Wicken, Jeffrey S.  "Change, Necessity, and Purpose: Toward a Philosophy of Evolution."  Zygon 16 (December 1981): 303-22.


Is life reducible to chemistry?

Alexander, Richard D.  "A Biological Interpretation of Moral Systems."  Zygon 20 (March 1985): 3-20.

Ashbrook, James B.  "'Mind' as Humanizing the Brain: Toward a Neurotheology of Meaning."  Zygon 32 (September 1997): 301-20.

Ashbrook, James B., and Albright, Carol Rausch.  "'The Humanizing Brain:' An Introduction."  Zygon 34 (March 1999): 7-44.

Austin, William H.  "Are Religious Beliefs 'Enabling Mechanisms for Survival?'"  Zygon 15 (June 1980): 193-202.

Ayala, Francisco J.  "Biology Precedes, Culture Transcends: An Evolutionist's View of Human Nature."  Zygon 33 (December 1998): 507-24.

Bowker, J. W.  "The Aeolian Harp: Sociobiology and Human Judgement."  Zygon 15 (September 1980): 307-50.

Clayton, Philip.  "Neuroscience, the Person, and God: An Emergentist Account." Zygon 35 (September 2000): 613-652.

Cronk, Lee.  "Evolutionary Theories of Morality and the Manipulative Use of Signals."  Zygon 29 (March 1994): 81-102.

David, Bernard D., and Engelhardt, Tristram H. Jr.  "Genetic Engineering: Prospects and Recommendations."  Zygon 19 (September 1984): 277-80.

Drew, Allan P.  "Genes and Human Behavior: The Emerging Paradigm."  Zygon 32 (March 1997): 41-50.

Ehret, Charles F.  "The Social Meaning of Modern Biology: From Social Darwinism to Sociobiology."  Zygon 24 (December 1989): 489-91.

Freedman, Daniel G.  "The Social and the Biological: A Necessary Unity."  Zygon 15 (June 1980): 117-32.

Glassman, Robert B.  "An Evolutionary Hypothesis About Teaching and Proselytizing Behaviors."  Zygon 15 (June 1980): 133-54.

Irons, William.  "The Biology of Moral Systems."  Zygon 26 (June 1991): 324-29.

Joseph, R.  "The Limbic System and the Soul: Evolution and the Neuroanatomy of Religious Experience."  Zygon 36 (March 2001): 105-136.

Hefner, Philip.  "Biological Perspectives on Fall and Original Sin."  Zygon 28 (March 1993): 77-102.

Jones, James W.  "Can neuroscience provide a complete account of human nature? A Reply to Roger Sperry."  Zygon 27 (June 1992): 197-203.

Katz, Solomon H.  "Biocultural Evolution and the Is/Ought Relationship."  Zygon 15 (June 1980): 155-68.

Lumsden, Charles J.  "Sociobiology, God and Understanding."  Zygon 24 (March 1989): 83-109.

MacLean, Paul D.  "Brain Roots of the Will-to-Power."  Zygon 18 (December 1983): 359-74.

Maddox, John, and Panel.  "Genes, Mind and Culture."  Zygon 19 (June 1984): 213-58.

Matthews, Clifford.  "Biology, Ethics, and the Origin of Life."  Zygon 31 (September 1996): 530-36.

Morrison, Nancy K. & Severino, Sally K. "The Biology of Morality."  Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 38 (December 2003): 855-869.

Nelson, James S.  "The Human Meaning of the Brain."  Zygon 34 (March 1999): 45-50.

Peterson, Gregory R.  "Mysterium Tremendum."  Zygon 37 (June 2002): 237-254.

Rappaport, Roy A.  "On the Evolution of Morality and Religion: A Response to Lee Cronk."  Zygon 29 (September 1994): 331-50.

Rausch Albright, Carol.  "The 'God Module' and the Complexifying Brain."  Zygon 35 (December 2000): 735-744.

Reiss, Michael J.  "Human Sociobiology."  Zygon 19 (June 1984): 117-40.

Robbins, J. Wesley.  "If our genes are for us, who can be against us? Thoughts of a Pragmatist on Science and Morality."  Zygon 30 (September 1995): 357-68.

Ross, Virginia.  "The Transcendent Function of the Bilateral Brain."  Zygon 21 (June 1986): 233-48.

Rotenberg, Mordechai.  "Hasidic Contraction: A Model for Interhemispheric Dialog."  Zygon 21 (June 1986) 201-18.

Singer, Peter.  "Ethics and Sociobiology."  Zygon 19 (June 1984): 141-58.

Schmitz-Moormann, Karl.  "Philosophical and Theological Reflections on Recent Neurobiological Discoveries."  Zygon 21 (June 1986): 249-86.

Trevarthen, Colwyn.  "Brain Science and the Human Spirit."  Zygon 21 (June 1986): 161-200.

Turner, Edith L. B. "Encounter with Neurobiology: The Response of Ritual Studies."  Zygon 21 (June 1986): 219-32.

Utke, Allen R.  "Chemistry: What does one need to know?"  Zygon 31 (September 1996): 497-508.

Was the universe created?

Albright, John.  "Beyond the Big Bang: Quantum Cosmologies and God."  Zygon 27 (December 1992): 459-62.

Albright, John R.  "Karl Schmitz-Moormann: Our Intellectual Legacy from a Great Mind."  Zygon 34 (June 1999): 333-38.

Bowker, J.W.  "Cosmology, Religion, and Society."  Zygon 25 (March 1990): 7-24.

Brun, Rudolf B.  "Does God Play Dice? A Response to Niels H. Gregersen, 'The Idea of Creation and the Theory of Autopoietic Processes.'"  Zygon 34 (March 1999): 93-100.

Carloye, Jack C.  "The Existence of God and the Creation of the Universe."  Zygon 27 (June 1992): 167-87.

Clayton, Philip.  "Natural Law and Divine Action: The Search for an Expanded Theory of Causation."  Zygon 39 (September 2004): 615-636.

Deltete, Robert J.  "Hawking on God and Creation."  Zygon 28 (December 1993): 485-507.

Dembski, William A., and Meyer, Stephen C.  "Fruitful Interchange or Polite Chitchat? The Dialog Between Science and Theology."  Zygon 33 (September 1998): 415-30.

Drees, Willem B.  "Quantum Cosmologies and the 'Beginning'."  Zygon 26 (September 1991): 373-97.

Goodman, Lenn E., and Goodman, Madeleine J.  "Creation and Evolution: Another Round in an Ancient Struggle."  Zygon 18 (March 1983): 3-44.

Gregersen, Niels Henrik.  "Autopoiesis: Less than Self-Constitution, More than Self-Organization, Reply to Gilkey, McClelland and Deltete, and Brun."  Zygon 34 (March 1999): 117-38.

Gregersen, Niels Henrik.  "The Idea of Creation and the Theory of Autopoietic Processes."  Zygon 33 (September 1998): 333-68.

Hallberg, Fred W.  "The Cosmic Blueprint: New Discoveries in Nature's Ability to Order the Universe."  Zygon 25 (December 1990): 493-97.

Heller, Michael.  "Cosmological Singularity and the Creation of the Universe." Zygon 35 (September 2000): 665-685.

Hodgson, Peter E.  "God and the Cosmologists."  Zygon 27 (December 1992): 475-78.

Laszlo, Ervin.  "Why I Believe in Science and Believe in God: A Credo."  Zygon 39 (September 2004): 535-539.

Larson, Duane H.  "Reifying Analogy in Natural Theology."  Zygon 34 (June 1999): 339-44.

Leslie, John.  "Theism, Atheism, and Big Bang Cosmology."  Zygon 30 (December 1995): 653-57.

McClelland, Richard T., and Deltete, Robert J.  "Creation, Co-operation, and Causality, A Reply to Gregersen."  Zygon 34 (March 1999): 101-10.

Odenwald, Sten F.  "A Modern Look at the Origin of the Universe."  Zygon 25 (March 1990): 25-46.

Peacocke, Arthur.  "Science and God the Creator."  Zygon 28 (December 1993): 469-85.

Rolston, Holmes III.  "Physical Cosmology and Philosophy."  Zygon 26 (June 1991): 317-25.

Russell, Colin A.  "Creation and the History of Science."  Zygon 29 (March 1994): 103-6.

Russell, Robert John.  "Cosmology from Alpha to Omega."  Zygon 29 (December 1994): 557-78.

Zylstra, Uko.  "Intelligent-Design Theory: An Argument for Biotic Laws."  Zygon 39 (March 2004): 175-191.

Why is there complexity in the universe?
Bohm, David.  "Hidden Variables and the Implicate Order."  Zygon 20 (June 1985): 111-24.

Bonting, Sjoerd L.  "Chaos Theology: A New Approach to the Science-Theology Dialogue."  Zygon 34 (June 1999): 323-32.

Bracken, Joseph A., S.J.  "Revising Process Metaphysics in Response to Ian Barbour's Critique."  Zygon 33 (September 1998): 405-14.

Budenholzer, Frank E.  "Emergence, Probability, and Reductionism."  Zygon 39 (June 2004): 339-356.

Byrne, Patrick H.  "God and the Statistical Universe."  Zygon 16 (December 1981): 345-64.

Chew, Geoffrey F.  "Gentle Quantum Events as the Source of Explicate Order."  Zygon 20 (June 1985): 159-64.

Fox, Ronald F.  "The Origins of Life: What One Needs to Know."  Zygon 32 (September 1997): 393-406.

Hefner, Philip.  "God and Chaos: The Demiurge Versus the 'Ungrund.'"  Zygon 19 (December 1984): 469-86.

Huchingson, James E.  "Chaos and God's Abundance: An Ontology of Variety in the Divine Life."  Zygon 32 (December 1997): 515-24.

Huchingson, James E.  "'Quo Vadis,' Systems Thought?"  Zygon 20 (December 1985): 435-44.

Jones, David, and Culliney, John.  "Confucian Order at the Edge of Chaos: The Science of Complexity and Ancient Wisdom."  Zygon 33 (September 1998): 395-404.

Peacocke, Arthur.  "Thermodynamics and Life."  Zygon 19 (December 1984): 395-432.

Raschke, Carl.  "From God to Infinity, or How Science Raided Religion's Patent on Mystery."  Zygon 17 (September 1982): 227-54.

Riggan, George A.  "Mind in Nature."  Zygon 16 (March 1981): 79-108.

Schäfer, Lothar.  "Quantum Reality, the Emergence of Complex Order from Virtual States, and the Importance of Consciousness in the Universe."  Zygon 41 (September 2006): 505-532.

Sharpe, Kevin and Walgate, Jonathan.  "The Emergent Order."  Zygon 38 (June 2003): 411-433.

Shideler, Emerson W.  "The Place of Faith in a World of Fact."  Zygon 20 (September 1985): 243-64.

Wicken, Jeffrey S.  "The Cosmic Breath: Reflections on the Thermodynamics of Creation."  Zygon 19 (December 1984): 487-505.

Do we belong here?
Beckmann, Kim L.  "DNA Fingerprinting and the Offertory Prayer: A Sermon."  Zygon 34 (September 1999): 537-41.

Bowker, J. W.  "On Being Religiously Human."  Zygon 16 (December 1981): 363-82.

Ferre, Frederick.  "Persons in Nature: Toward an Applicable and Unified Environmental Ethics."  Zygon 28 (December 1993): 441-54.

Huchingson, James E.  "The Home Planet."  Zygon 25 (September 1990): 357-63.

Kaufman, Gordon D.  "The Epic of Evolution as a Framework for Human Orientation in Life."  Zygon 32 (June 1997): 175-88.

Klink, William H.  "Ecology and Eschatology: Science and Theological Modeling."  Zygon 29 (December 1994): 529-46.

McMullin, Ernan.  "Persons in the Universe."  Zygon 15 (March 1980): 69-100.

Norris, Russell Bradner, Jr.  "Cosmos and Anthropos: A Philosophical Interpretation of the Anthropic Cosmological Principle."  Zygon 28 (December 1993): 531-38.

Rolston, Holmes III.  "Rights and Responsibilities on the Home Planet."  Zygon 28 (December 1993): 425-40.

Segal, Robert A.  "Victor Turner's Theory of Ritual."  Zygon 18 (September 1983): 327-58.

Sharpe, Kevin and Walgate, Jonathan.  "The Anthropic Principle: Life in the Universe."  Zygon 37 (December 2002): 925-939.

Wicken, Jeffrey S.  "Toward an Evolutionary Ecology of Meaning."  Zygon 24 (June 1989): 153-85.

Zycinski, Joseph M.  "The Weak Anthropic Principle and the Design Argument."  Zygon 31 (March 1996): 115-31.

Does the universe have a purpose?
Birtel, Frank T.  "Commentary on the Science-Religion Controversy."  Zygon 28 (December 1993): 420-25.

Brun, Rudolf B.  "Does God Play Dice? A Response to Niels H. Gregersen, 'The Idea of Creation and the Theory of Autopoietic Processes.'"  Zygon 34 (March 1999): 93-100.

Cauthen, Kenneth.  "A Purpose for Everything: Religion in a Postmodern Worldview."  Zygon 27 (September 1992): 358-61.

Forrest, Barbara.  "The Possibility of Meaning in Human Evolution."  Zygon 35 (December 2000): 861-880.

Haddox, Bruce.  "Questioning Polanyi's 'Meaning:' A Response to Ronald Hall."  Zygon 17 (March 1982): 19-24.

Hall, Ronald L.  "Michael Polanyi on Art and Religion: Some Critical Reflections on 'Meaning.'"  Zygon 17 (March 1982): 9-18.

Haught, John F., and Yeager, D. M.  "Polanyi's Finalism."  Zygon 32 (December 1997): 543-66.

Klink, William H.  "Ecology and Eschatology: Science and Theological Modeling."  Zygon 29 (December 1994): 529-46.

Murphy, George L. "Time, Thermodynamics, and Theology."  Zygon 26 (September 1991): 359-63.

Mutschler, Hans-Dieter.  "Frank Tipler's Physical Eschatology."  Zygon 30 (September 1995): 479-91.

Peters, Ted.  "Theology and Science: Where are we?"  Zygon 31 (June 1996): 323-55.

Sherover, Charles M.  "Experiential Time and the Religious Concern."  Zygon 16 (December 1981): 323-44.

Sontag, Frederick.  "The Rebirth of Meaning: A Human Problem."  Zygon 18 (March 1983): 83-95.

Wattles, Jeffrey.  "Teleology Past and Present."  Zygon 41 (June 2006): 445-464.

Return to Opening Page